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Age-related Macular Degeneration

Macula is located at the center of the retina. It is full of photoreceptors and is responsible for detailed central vision and color discrimination. Age-related macular degeneration is a progressive disease of the macular that is related to aging.


Patients may be asymptomatic at the early stage of disease. However, when the disease affects the central vision, they may notice the following symptoms:

  1. Blurring of central vision : the patients may have difficulties in reading books.
  2. Distorted vision : straight lines such as antenna or outlines of buildings may appear wavy or bent.
  3. A dark or empty spot appears in the center of the visual field.
  4. Colors appeared dull or washed out.

Risk factors:

The exact cause of age-related macular degeneration is still unknown, and researches have identified the following risk factors:

  1. Advancing age: prevalence increases from 1% at age 55 to 15% at age 80
  2. Family history of the disease
  3. Smoking: smokers are more than 2 times higher risk of developing age-related macular degeneration
  4. Long term exposure to ultraviolet light


Treatment options include laser photocoagulation and photodynamic therapy.


  1. No smoking.
  2. Avoid prolonged exposure under direct sunlight and wear sunglasses if necessary.
  3. Take more food rich in beta-carotene, vitamin C and E (such as carrot, cereal, green leafy vegetables and fruits, and whole grains) may help protect us from getting this disease.
  4. Regular eye examination: regular eye examination is the only way to detect age related macular degeneration. As patients may be asymptomatic at the early stage of disease, and early treatment can minimize further vision loss, so it is important for elders to have regular eye examination

Age-related macular degeneration can result in permanent vision loss; thus elders should seek medical attention promptly if they notice problems in central vision or color vision.